Oncology in the simplest words can be described as the branch of study that deals in the field of cancer. The person who studies oncology is referred to as an oncologist or cancer specialist. Now when we come to the question, ‘what is medical oncology?’. It can be stated as the treatment program of cancer that includes certain drugs, methods, and agents that travel in the entire body of the person who is diagnosed with cancer. These drugs, methods, or agents help in destroying cancer cells and they help the body to defend itself as well. And thus, it is the main objective of both medical oncology and hematology. Medical oncology is one of the major cancer treatment modalities that use systemic treatment approaches. These approaches could be:
All these approaches are used to manage cancer more precisely and effectively.
Targeted therapy is directed to a signaling pathway or a specific target that makes use of certain drugs for blocking the spread and growth of the cancer. This is done by interfering with division and growth of a cancer cell in various ways and at different points during the spread, development and growth of cancer. This therapy offers an effective treatment for cancer without damaging healthy tissues and focusing more on cellular and molecular changes that are specific to cancer.
The specialty of pathology, internal medicine, pediatrics, physiology, clinical laboratory that is primarily concerned with the study of blood diseases, blood and blood-forming organs is known as hematology. It also involves the study of etiology along with prevention, prognosis, treatment and diagnosis of blood diseases. Following tools are used for managing the blood diseases –
Chemotherapy is a medical approach that is used to treat cancer. In this medical approach, powerful drugs are used to find and destroy the cancer cells in the patient’s body. It simply stops or slows the growth rate of the cancer-causing cells that undergo abnormal cell division and growth hence, causing cancer. One major setback of chemotherapy is that it can also destroy those cells that are not cancer-causing or considered healthy cells. These cells are mostly found in the lining of the mouth and intestine and hair follicles. Because of this, patients might go through some side effects. These side effects can be categorized as mild to moderate. Whereas, in some cases, these side effects can be severe as well. To counter their effect, the medical experts or the oncologists will prescribe certain medications or drugs.
Chemotherapy is categorized into two subcategories. These are as follows;
One of the major roles of chemotherapy is that it not only prevents recurrence but also helps in preventing cancer from spreading to other parts of the body.
Immunotherapy is also known as biological therapy. In this therapy, the approach is centralized on the personalized treatment of the patient. This personalized treatment approach works on one principle and that is stimulating the immunity cells of that particular individual who is diagnosed with cancer. The stimulation of the immunity cells makes them attack the cancer-causing cells. In simple words, we can say that immunotherapy stimulates the body’s natural defense system to fight against cancer-causing cells.
The working mechanism of immunotherapy is very distinctive. It works in multiple aspects such as;
There are different types of personalized approaches that can be used to reprogram the immune system of the cancer patient. The approaches are listed below;
Target therapy is a type of therapy that emphasizes precision. It can be said to be the form of precise cancer treatment in medical oncology. Before performing the targeted therapy, a thorough medical examination needs to be done of the patient that includes a thorough assessment of the tumor microenvironment is performed. The targeted therapy simply targets specific proteins that are responsible for the growth and development of the cancer-causing cell, hence it regulates it and regulates their growth process.
Target therapy works in different steps and they are listed below;
Hormone therapy is a type of oncology therapy that is used for cancer that needs hormones to grow or multiply. These cancers are either called hormone-dependent or hormone-sensitive cancers. Hormone therapy uses certain types of drugs, these drugs block certain hormones or reduce their levels in the body to stop the growth of the cancer-causing cells. Just like other therapies, hormone therapies are combined with other treatment modalities like surgery or radiation therapy.
There are several cancers that can be treated with the help of hormone therapy some of them are listed below:
Moreover, there are Some examples of hormone therapies, and these are as given below:
As we all know, chemotherapy is a type of therapy that may be given before or after surgery. In this therapy, there are certain types of drugs that are used. Oncology drugs are therapeutics used to treat cancer, a group of diseases caused by uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells. These drugs can be in the form of injections or the form of pills as well. Some of the chemotherapy drugs that are used enlisted below;
Chemotherapy can be very beneficial when treating patients that are diagnosed with cancer. Here are some of the reasons that support the notion;
To counter the side effects of oncology drugs, sometimes your doctor will prescribe you a prescription of drugs that can reduce its side effects. Some of the drugs that are used to reduce the side effects are given below;
The benefits of oncology drugs vary from person to person. And it depends upon the type of cancer as well. These drugs might help an individual significantly. There are certain beneficial features of these drugs and they are listed below;
So, we have talked about the benefits of oncology drugs, we also need to showcase the side effects that a person can face. Chemotherapy sometimes might attack healthy cells of the body as well. These cells can be blood cells, skin, hair, and cells lining the intestine. Apart from these some common side effects that can be seen are as follows;
Apart from chemotherapy, targeted therapy or immunotherapy is considered to be safer than an option. Because they only attack the cells that are not good as well as not healthy cells of the body. Though the risk factor is there, one should always keep this thought in their mind. What will be the side effects of the drugs? There are common symptoms that can be seen as side effects and they are as follows:
Apart from these drug intakes, certain options can be opted for if anyone wants to treat cancer.
These alternative options often include;
Surgery: Surgery is often performed to remove the tumor or lymph node to stop the spread of cancer.
Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy is another alternative that can be used to treat cancer. This high-energy beam is used to destroy cancer cells.
Stem Cell Transplant: Stem cell transplant is another available alternative option. It is beneficial for people with blood-related cancers, such as leukemia or lymphoma.
Chemotherapy is a medical approach that is used to treat cancer. In this medical approach, powerful drugs are used to find and destroy the cancer cells in the patient’s body.
With the advancement in medical sciences, you can easily work while having chemotherapy but it is advisable to have proper rest in terms of survival.
Both of the methods have their own significance, if medical experts or doctors prescribe the usage of target therapy then people need to use that method.
If we consider the cost for the treatment of cancer, at the national level, on an average total cancer care expenditure was around Rs 1,16,218.
A type of chemotherapy that is given to the person who is diagnosed with cancer and it is given before their primary course of treatment.