Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)

What is Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)?

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)

The knee is considered a hinge joint. It allows the body to bend and straighten, but it does not allow movement like a hinge on a door. The ACL and PCL (Posterior Cruciate Ligament) are two ligaments inside the knee that help to control joint movement or motion, by holding the bones together. This can prevent your knees from collapsing or dislocating. The ACL allows movement in a straight line, while the PCL flexes/bends sideways. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament that connects your thighbone (femur) to your shinbone (tibia). It stabilizes the knee and if it got torn one may feel pain in the knee or feels a popping sensation if one tries to move the knee.

Symptoms Of Anterior Cruciate Ligament

If your ligaments are damaged due to an injury or fall, then the person may experience various symptoms related to the injury. There are various symptoms which are related to ACL such as:

  • Pain: If a person is Having a minor injury in the knee, he/she can find it unbearable. It can be tough to tell the exact cause because of which many minor injuries go unfixed. This can also result in various symptoms such as trouble in standing or trouble in walking.
  • Swelling: Items such as Ice packs, compression socks and walking bags will help you get through that tough first 24 hours post-injury. They will help with swelling, pain, and discomfort while speeding your recovery time.
  • Walking Trouble: When a person is facing this symptom, he/she must avoid putting pressure on the leg which is hurt. Even then also if one suffering from pain then seek medical help.
  • Less Range of Motion: If the ligament of a person is damaged because of overuse or some injury, this can result in inability to bend the legs completely.

Risks Involved In ACL Surgery

As we all know every surgery has its own risks and limitations, so same goes here with ACL reconstruction or ACL repair. There are some risks and limitations in the surgery of ACL which are:

  • Bleeding from the surgery point
  • Blood clots
  • Infection at the surgical point
  • Continuous knee pain, weakness, or stiffness
  • Not able to move the knee properly or experience discomfort
  • Not able to attain symptom relief
  • Graft does not heal properly
  • ACL tears in children heighten the chance of causing growth plate injuries, which are present in the end of bones in legs and arms and assists in bone growth.

Apart from the above mentioned some person may suffer from shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting or allergic reactions because of the anesthesia given before the surgery.

ACL Injuries


The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of your knee connects two bones in the joint and is responsible for stabilizing the knee. When torn or sprained, it can cause pain and swelling of one or both knees. Most injuries will heal with time and exercise, but sometimes the ACL tears completely or partially ruptures which may result in severe instability. This can result in lost function, which causes additional challenges that require surgery and extended rehabilitation therapy.

ACL tears are those kinds of injuries that can affect any athlete regardless of the age. They are commonly found in sports containing sudden stops or direction change or jumping and landing such as soccer, basketball, football, and downhill skiing, which can result in swelling of knee resulting in instability and difficult to bear weight on.

Different Types Of ACL Injuries

ACL injuries are classified into three grade injuries. These are:

  • Grade 1: In this case, the ligament is tamely damaged, for example if there is limited motion in the knee joint but even then, the person can control and stabilize the whole knee.
  • Grade 2: This type of injury is not common, and it is referred as when the ligament is stretched or torn partially. Depending on the seriousness of the injury its treatment also may differ. Thus, it is essential to seek professional advice as soon as possible.
  • Grade 3: This stage is referred to as ACL tear, when the ligament is totally torn in two and even it does not provide any stability to knee.


You must consult an experienced Orthopaedical to diagnose the rupture of ACL because they are the only one who possesses the best knowledge of this injury. If a person has suffered an ACL tear and cannot walk, the doctor will recommend surgical intervention. There is various process by which ACL can be diagnosed. Some of the processes are:

ACL Treatment

The ACL injury is one of the commonest types of injury and occurs most frequently either through non-contact mechanisms or a direct contact mechanism with another object. It is reported that The ACL is more prone to get injured in individuals who play aggressive sports like basketball, football, soccer by a quick hyperextension or twisting movement at the knee joint. To ensure you get the best ACL treatment in India, depending on the extent of the damage and your overall health, the orthopedic surgeon will propose or suggest either one of the approaches:

In this procedure, the torn ACL ligament is replaced by using a substitute graft which can be used from the following:

  1. Hamstring Muscle Tendon AutoGraft: It is present in the knee of the person and can be taken from the patient's knee itself.
  2. Patellar Tendon AutoGraft: It is also present in the knee same as the hamstring so we can use it from the patient knee.
  3. Quadriceps Muscle Tendon Autograft.
  4. Allograft: This type of graft is usually taken from cadaver's patellar tendon, posterior tibialis tendon, Achilles tendon, Gracilis, or Semitendinosus Tendon.

Expected Result from The Treatment

After successful ACL reconstruction surgery along with continuous and regular physiotherapy, your knee will be stable, less painful and you will be able to perform daily activities very early. Various result which one may expect from the surgery includes:

  • Stable knee very soon after the surgery
  • Early recovery
  • Less complications
  • Less amount of pain
  • Less stiffness
  • Able to perform daily activities very early

Best Hospitals in India for Treatment

There are various hospitals and clinics across India which provides best treatment for ACL injuries. The hospitals provide best doctors, facilities, treatment options which are available. Some of the hospitals are:

  • BKL Hospital
  • Nanavati Hospital
  • Max Health Care
  • Fortis
  • Apollo Hospital
  • Pristyn Care - Gurgaon
  • Vimhans Hospital
  • Sehgal Neo Hospital
  • Medstar
  • Avantika Multispeciality Hospital
  • Mukat Hospital
  • Ayushmaan
  • Apex Hospital- Mulund
  • Terna Hospital
  • ONP Prime Hospital
  • Vasavi Hospital
  • Lotus Hospital Hyd - Kukatpally
  • Yatharth Hospital
  • Sehgal Neo Hospital
  • Diyos Hospital

ACL Surgery Cost in India

ACL reconstruction average costs in India starts from around USD 1136 (INR 90457) The cost truly depends on the type of procedure, surgeon and even the facilities. To make sure that one is having a best suited treatment plan, a pre-evaluation is done to determine the overall health and it costs. Moreover, the cost of ACL repair in India may ranges between USD 553 to 4839 USD (INR 44000 to 385000) which can be processed by either of the methods be it the traditional open approach or the minimally invasive (arthroscopic) approach.


The recovery time after surgery varies from person to person. In some patients, the recovery might take a few months but in some patients the recovery might be slower, and they may take up to a year to recover. The most important factor to consider post-surgery and have early recovery is follow the rehabilitation program properly. The rehabilitation program aims at regaining mobility first and then strengthening the muscles and bones. For athletes, it covers sports exercises also at end of treatment

It can happen when you find a workable pace on the high-power physical action that requires knee pressure. It is most recognized tendon injury that happens in the knee of the individual who plays sports.

ACL Reconstruction surgery is a great option to repair torn ACL. However, there may be complications like diseases, blood thickening in legs and harm to different vessels, nerves during a medical procedure. In certain patients, screws may cause the issue and require removal. In some other cases, ligament cannot be joined due to bone's anatomical curve.

This approach to diagnosing and treating ACL injuries has allowed for a dramatic improvement in the surgical treatment of this injury. The primary components influencing the completion of ACL Surgery relies upon the determination of uniting, the arrangement of the join in the bone passage, and obsession of the join as likewise the postoperative recovery.

For knees to function properly, they should load regularly. Another factor for keeping the knee strong is performing activities that involve a lot of muscle use. So, get ready for an intense workout at the off chance that you play sports, which require a lot of jumping, running, and bouncing.

ACL reconstruction is one of the most performed surgeries in sports medicine. The decision to undergo surgery for an ACL injury is often based on two main factors: pain and quality of life. With around 90%+ completion rate, ACL Reconstructive Surgery is the normal medical procedure with a much higher achievement rate than some other medical procedures.

ACL surgery in India is not different from the standard type of ACL repair surgery that requires an injury to occur. With ACL treatment in India the patient will be able to regain full function of the knee and will also be able to get back to previous sport activity. With the expertise of the best orthopaedic surgeons in India, patients can expert precision and international quality surgery.

When you experience a 'pop' sound or prolonged pain during your regular movements, you should see a doctor. The doctor will physically examine if both the knees, the normal one and the one with the soreness are same or look different. He/she may also suggest getting an MRI, ultrasound or X-ray done to determine the extent of the damage.

ACL reconstruction is an excellent option if you have an ACL injury. The surgery is minimal and offers a speedy recovery, which makes it an ideal option for athletes and patients who need rehabilitation as soon as possible. With this procedure, most people can expect to return to their usual activities within 3 months with intense rehabilitation for 6 months or more.

You are a good candidate for ACL reconstruction surgery if you have got your knee injured because of some high impact sport activities, frequent episodes of disabling knee instability in the form of buckling or knee giving away while walking, and without any relief in the symptoms despite conservative management or rehabilitation.

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