Colon Cancer

What Is Colon Cancer?

Colon Cancer

Colon cancer is also known as bowel cancer or colorectal cancer is the cancer of the large intestine. It starts from the lower end of the large intestine commonly known as the rectum. After beginning from the rectum, it moves to other parts of the colon. It begins as non-cancerous polyps in the early stages. Polyps are non-cancerous small lumps of cells on the colon's inner surface. Screening can be used to detect non-cancerous polyps. Colon cancer is more likely to develop after the age of 50. Therefore, after the age of 50, it is strongly advised to have regular screenings.

Stages of Colon Cancer

Types of Colon Cancer

Symptoms of Colon Cancer

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by the following symptoms:

Macules of Melanocytic (dark blue or brown moles) these moles can be found on the lips, around the eyes, nose, and anus, as well as around and/or in the mouth. Dark moles on the fingers are also possible. By adulthood, the lesions may have faded. Multiple polyps in the stomach and intestines.

Increased risk of benign (noncancerous) ovarian and testicular cancers. Cancers of the stomach, esophagus, breast, colon, and pancreas are all at a higher risk.

Mutations in the STK11 gene on chromosome 19, which operates as a tumour suppressor gene, cause Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

The symptoms of colon cancer vary from person to person, but here are some of the more common ones.

  • Weakness
  • Blood in the stool or rectal bleeding
  • Sudden weight loss for no apparent reason
  • The sensation of being full in the abdomen
  • Constant abdominal discomfort, as well as stomach pain, gas, and cramps
  • Changes in bowel habits such as diarrhoea or constipation, as well as changes in stool consistency

If any of these symptoms remain persistent for a long period, one should visit a doctor and undergo screening as per the advice of the doctor. In the early stage of cancer, a person may not experience any symptoms as well. It is recommended to undergo screening after the age of 50. But doctors may recommend screening before the age of 50 to consider other risk factors.

Causes of Colon Cancer

  1. Age: People over the age of 50 are more likely to develop colon cancer. To detect it at an early stage, regular screening after the age of 50 is required. Despite the fact that rates of colon cancer in people under the age of 50 are rising.
  2. Family history of colon cancer: If you have a direct blood relation with a family history of colon cancer, it is recommended that you undergo colon cancer screening after the age of 50, or before the age of 50 if you have any symptoms.
  3. A high-fat, low-fibre diet: Diet is also linked to colon cancer. Diets high in fat, such as red meat, processed meat, and low in fibre, increase the risk of colon cancer. As a result, eating a well-balanced diet is advised.

Diagnosis of Colon Cancer

Colonoscopy: A diagnostic procedure that allows the doctor to examine the entire length of the large intestine.

Digital rectal exam: A digital rectal exam (DRE) is an exam of the rectum.

Faecal occult blood test (FOBT): A faecal occult blood test (FOBT) is a test to check stool (solid waste) for blood that can only be seen with a microscope.

Biopsy: A procedure in which tissue samples are removed from the body by a needle or during surgery for examination under a microscope to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present. There are many different types of biopsies.

Sigmoidoscopy: A diagnostic procedure that allows the doctor to examine the lower one-third of the large intestine.

Blood Count: This is a test to check for anemia (a result of bleeding from a tumor).

Barium enema (lower gastrointestinal series): A procedure that examines the rectum, the large intestine, and the lower part of the small intestine using a contrast dye containing barium.

Imaging Tests: Tests such as a CT (Computerised Tomography) scan, ultrasound, or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) of the abdomen may be done to look for tumors or other problems. These tests may also be done if colorectal cancer has already been diagnosed to help determine the extent (stage) of the cancer.

Treatment Options of Colon Cancer

Small polyps are usually removed during the colonoscopy without the need for any incisions. Larger or more complex polyps are typically removed at Stanford using minimally invasive surgery that involves removing the segment of colon containing the polyp or polyps.

Colon Cancer Treatment

If cancer is discovered in the polyp, the more comprehensive approach may eliminate the need for a subsequent operation. If a cancer is discovered during a colonoscopy, the same operation is performed. Find out more about colonoscopies.

If cancer has not spread, surgery to remove the cancerous portion of the colon is often curative, with no further treatment required. Stanford specializes in multidisciplinary surgical treatment for colon cancer that has spread to other organs for locally advanced tumours or tumours that have spread to other organs. For locally advanced tumors or tumors that have spread to other organs, Stanford specializes in multidisciplinary surgical treatment for colon cancer that may involve urologists, liver surgeons, gynecologic oncologists, and reconstructive plastic surgeons, as necessary. They are experts in surgical removal and reconstruction strategies to give patients as comfortable a lifestyle as possible.

Colon Cancer Treatment Cost in India

Colon cancer is a common type of cancer that develops from the colon, which is a part of your digestive system. Colon cancer can be cured if detected in early stages, but not everyone has access to advanced medical facilities. The colon cancer treatment cost in India starts from $1100 (₹85460) to $9000 (₹699223). The variation in the cost is due to different treatment options and the intensity of the treatment.


If you are above 50, go through regular screening to get an idea about colon health.Add more fibres to your diet. Eat more vegetables and fruits. Have a balanced diet and put some cut on red meat.

If you are overweight, reduce your weight through regular exercise and other physical activities. Avoid smoking and reduce alcohol consumption.

Stools may look black or look like tar. If the stool colour is black, then it is a warning sign that blood from the colon might have made the stool dark red or black.

Poop colour may be bright red as well, in case of colon cancer. Irregular thin stool may also be colon cancer.

Depending on the type of surgery chosen by the doctor, most patients will spend no more than 5 days in the hospital. After the surgery, patients should be able to return to their normal routine in 2 to 4 weeks. Patients may experience fatigue, which will subside over time.

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