The Kidneys are pear shaped digestive organs located in the upper abdomen which play a key role in bodily functions. Their main functions are blood filtering and getting rid of bodily waste thereby balancing the electrolyte levels in the body.
The kidneys are also vital for controlling blood pressure and stimulating the production of red blood cells. The kidneys are located in the abdomen, one on each side of the spine. Kidneys get their blood supply through the renal arteries directly from the aorta and send blood back to the heart via the renal veins to the vena cava.
The transplant itself is a surgical process where the surgeon places the new kidney in your abdomen and attaches it to the artery that supplied blood to one of your kidneys and to the vein carrying blood away from the kidney. The ureter is attached to the kidney, which carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.
Replacement of diseased or non-working kidneys with a healthy kidney from a living or brain dead donor. One can live long with one kidney also if it is functioning properly. It is for the patients who has end stage renal disease. The Kidney transplant surgeries are of two types :
For more information on Kidney Transplantation criteria ,please read Kidney/Renal Transplant Guidelines in India
The process which reduces the functioning of the kidneys is called as ‘kidney disease’. There are two types of kidney diseases- acute kidney disease where damage is sudden revealing the symptoms quickly and the other is chronic kidney disease where the decline in the kidney function is slow and progressive. The different types of kidney diseases are :
Diagnostic tests for kidney disease are blood tests, urine tests, measuring kidney function, imaging tests and kidney biopsy.
The procedure starts by new kidney placed on the lower right or left side of the patient’s abdomen from where the nearby blood vessels are surgically connected. The artery and vein of the kidney will be attached just above one of the legs to an artery and vein in the lower part of the abdomen. To allow urine to pass out of the patient’s body the new kidney ureter, the tube that links the kidney to the bladder, will be connected to blood vessels and the bladder.
A successful kidney transplant can benefit the patient drastically. The patient will be able to get back to its normal lifestyle after the surgery and can go for a normal diet and opt for more fluid intake. After transplant the patient need not to depend on dialysis. Anemia which is a common problem with kidney failure might also be corrected. The success rate depends on the type of organ transplanted, by the number of organs transplanted and the type of disease that caused the organ to fail. For single organ transplants the success rate is 80 % to 90 % of and a 5-10 year survival rate.
Post operational care involves taking daily medicines to prevent the immune system from rejecting the new organ. The number of medicines will vary over the years and more anti-rejection medicines are required immediately after the transplant. Some healthy precautions should be taken like eating healthy foods, regular exercise, good sleep and staying away from large crowds.
Compared to international healthcare costs, cost of kidney transplant in India (with dialysis) is very reasonable. Hospitals in India treat 5,000 kidney patients annually from all over the world, providing the best medical care at considerably low prices.
The first step to distribute the organs locally and if there are no recipients then the organs are regionally offered and finally they are nationally distributed. The purpose is to place the organs of the donor.
The organ can be donated by-
Both living and brain dead can be organ donors. The person who received an injury either pathological or traumatic to that specific part of the brain that controls the process of breathing and heartbeat, the person is declared as brain dead. The brain dead person is suitable for organ donation.
Living Donor :
A living donor could be a family member like parents, brother or sister. A living donor can donate renewable cells, fluid or tissues. The living donor can also donate small bowel, a partial donation of liver and a single kidney.
Deceased Donor (cadaveric) :
These are those donors who are declared as brain dead and their organs are kept workable in ventilators till the time they can be used for transplantation.
Kidney transplant is a surgical procedure for replacing the diseased or no longer functional kidney with a healthy one. The kidneys are very vital for the proper functioning of the body as they filter and remove excess water, fluid and minerals from the blood in the form of urine. Also known as a renal transplant, it is opted by those who don't want to spend their life on dialysis (a machine for filter waste from the blood).