If you are looking for affordable kidney cancer treatment, India should be among your top choices. The cost of kidney cancer care in India is less than expected in other developing countries of the industrialized world. The estimated cost of treatment for kidney cancer in India is approximately $3,000-$4,000 (2,23,402 – 2,97,870 INR), and depends on factors such as the chosen hospital, physician experience, housing, post-operative care etc.
What is Kidney Cancer?
Patients experience minimal complications following knee replacement surgery. Even when complications occur, they are not prolonged. However, when complications occur, the patient requires an extended recovery period. The maximum time taken for patients to get back to their daily routine is between 12 weeks and 6 months. Prosthetics placed in the knee remain in the working condition upto 20 years after surgery. Seniors undergoing knee replacement generally experience a complete recovery after a post-surgical period of care.
Kidney cancer, also known as renal cancer, is the most common type of kidney tumor that begins in the kidney cells. This disease can develop in several locations within the kidney, with the most common site being the tubes that carry urine from each kidney to the bladder (ureters).
Other sites include other types of tumors that begin in different types of cells, such as renal cell carcinoma, which is a common type and accounts for about 90% of all kidney tumors while, Wilms tumors (only in children), and other rare forms of kidney cancers accounts for only 10%. It is seen as 9th common cancer among men and 14th common among women.
Types Of Kidney Cancer
Kidney cancer is more common in adults and accounts for approximately 85% of the cases. The disease develops in the proximal renal tubules which constitute the filtration system of the kidney. Kidney Cancer can be categorized into:
This is a rare type of kidney cancer which occurs in the region of the kidney where urine gets collected. It makes up 5-10% of all kidney cancers diagnosed in adults and it starts as a tumor.
Kidney sarcoma is a rare condition. It usually responds well to chemotherapy and radiation treatment. However, sarcoma may return in the renal area or spread to other parts of your body. Another surgery to remove any remaining tumors or chemotherapy may be recommended following the initial surgery.
It is a type of kidney cancer that children develop. Wilms tumor is better treated with radiation and chemo than other types of kidney cancer in conjunction with surgery. The outcome was a different approach to treatment that has resulted in a better chance for survival.
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Majority of kidney cancers are renal cell carcinoma that accounts for around 85%. This cancer typically occurs inside the microscopic filtering systems of the kidney. It can also arise from other non-kidney cells that line or cover the surfaces of different parts of the urinary system.
Lymphoma can enlarge both kidneys and is associated with large lymph nodes. If lymphoma is a possibility, your physician can do a biopsy and suggest chemo instead of surgery.
Signs And Symptoms Of Kidney Cancer
The signs of kidney cancer are not always identified as it does not usually produce any particularly noticeable symptoms at an early stage. But there are some symptoms that may help identify the problem in kidneys. The following are the most common indications that can indicate kidney tumor:
- Weight loss
- Blood in urine
- Decreased appetite
- Back pain on one side
- A lump on the side or bottom of the back
- Permanent Fever which is not due to infection
Causes Of Kidney Cancer
Although the exact cause of kidney cancer is not known, a few risk factors have been identified, and these risk factors are found to increase one’s chances of developing kidney cancer. Although most people who have a risk factor will never develop kidney cancer, knowing what may increase your risk can lead to early detection of the disease and better treatment options. Some of the risk factors includes:
- Von Hippel-Lindau Disease: Individuals with this genetic disorder are at a higher risk of getting kidney cancer.
- Exposure to Harmful Chemicals: Exposure to hazardous chemicals, such as cadmium and certain herbicides increases one’s risk of getting kidney cancer.
- Infection: Hepatitis C infection.
- Underlying Kidney Diseases
- Family History of Kidney Cancer
- Regular Usage of NSAIDs: Consumption of ibuprofen and naproxen for a long time.
- Previous Treatments for Cervical Cancer or Testicular Cancer: Those who have received treatment for cervical cancer and testicular cancer are more prone to develop kidney cancer.
Diagnosis Procedure For Kidney Cancer
For the oncologist, it is necessary to confirm the existence or absence of kidney cancer based on the collection of symptoms that you experience. To confirm the existence of cancer cells in your kidneys, he or she may recommend a combination of the following diagnostic tests:
Medical background and physical examination
CT (Computerised Tomography) scan
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scans
Urine and blood tests
This test evaluate the presence in the urine of blood cells, cancer cells, or bacteria, and the nutritional status of red blood cells (RBCs) in the patient’s blood sample. Such testing may suggest the presence of cancer cells in the kidney indirectly, but do not confirm a diagnosis.
Medical background and physical examination
The doctor will check your child's general signs of health and examine for fever, high blood pressure and lumps. In addition, the doctor will feel your child's abdomen and side for any lump.
CT (Computerised Tomography) scan
A CT scan is a special imaging technique used to construct a three-dimensional view of the internal parts of the body. It helps confirm the tumor’s location and size in the kidney, as well as its relationship to vital structures like blood vessels and nearby organs. Injecting a special dye into the patient’s vein, which then flows throughout their bloodstream and provides contrast for scanning, doctors can then note how it moves in relation to other vital structures.
The doctor may do a biopsy. The doctor inserts a thin needle through the skin into the kidney to remove a small amount of tissue. A pathologist uses a microscope to look for cancer cells in the tissue. The doctor uses ultrasound or x-ray to guide the needle.
Ultrasound uses sound waves that are too high for people to hear. The waves bounce off the kidneys, and a computer uses the echoes to create a picture called a sonogram. A solid tumor or cyst shows up on this image.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scans
MRI scans use magnetic fields and radio waves to create images of the body. They are commonly used to obtain better detailed images of soft tissues inside the body. MRI scans can be performed when a person cannot have CT contrast dye because they are allergic to it or have poor renal function. MRI scans may also be performed if there is a chance that cancer has become a major blood vessel in the abdomen.
A bone scan is performed if there are grounds to believe that cancer may have spread to bones such as bone pain or increased calcium levels. A small quantity of low-level radioactive material is injected into the blood and accumulates primarily in abnormal areas of the bones.
This procedure is performed to check the condition of the kidneys, urethra, and bladder. X-rays are used to see the structures of the urinary tract. The dye helps in identifying tumors in the urinary system.
X-rays can help determine whether cancer has spread to the lungs after diagnosis of kidney cancer. A thoracic CT is performed because it can see abnormal areas better.
Stages Of Kidney Cancer
To know the stage kidney cancer, the doctor needs to know the size of her tumor and whether it has spread. The stage of the cancer is based on how advanced it is and involves imaging tests to determine how large the tumor is, whether it has spread to other parts of the body, and so on.
Stage 1 is the lowest level of aggression and has the highest survival rate. The cancer tumor is relatively small at the early stage, so it is given a T1 designation. It is likely to be removed, and follow-up treatment may not be needed. The odds of recovery are good. With treatment, the five-year survival rate is 81 percent. This means that out of 100 people who are diagnosed with stage 1 kidney cancer, 81 of them will live more than five years after their initial diagnosis.
Stage 2 Renal Cell Carcinoma is more severe than Stage 1.This stage involves tumors that are more than 7cm in size but still confined to the kidney.The five-year survival rate of stage 2 kidney cancer is 74 percent. This means that 74 out of 100 people diagnosed with stage 2 kidney cancer will live more than five years after diagnosis.
In this case we came across two situations, in the first scenario, the tumor became a major vein and a neighbouring tissue but did not reach the neighbouring lymph nodes. In the second scenario, the tumor may be of any size and may occur outside the kidney. In this case, the cancer cells also invaded the adjacent lymph nodes but did not proceed further.The five-year survival rate for both cases is 53 percent. This means that 53 of every 100 people diagnosed with stage 3 kidney cancer will live another five years or more after they are diagnosed.
This stage of cancer can also be divided into two categories, Firstly, the tumor has not spread to other organs, but has grown so large that it reaches beyond the kidney tissue and may have grown into nearby lymph nodes. Secondly, Metastases (where the cancer has already spread) to other organs or tissues.The survival rate of stage 4 lung cancer can vary from person to person. However, the five-year survival rate at this point drops to eight percent. This means that 8 out of 100 people diagnosed with stage 4 cancer will live another five years after they are diagnosed.
This indicates cancer that has recurred or returned after treatment. It may recur in the kidney or in another part of the body.
Treatment Options For Kidney Cancer
Treatments for kidney cancer may vary depending on the type of cancer, how far it has spread, and the patient’s overall health. Each one of these has its own advantages and disadvantages in terms of treatment success rates and side effects. Here are some treatments related to kidney cancer:
Surgery to remove the tumor is a common treatment for many kidney cancers. Your surgeon will remove all the tumor and some of the surrounding healthy tissue during surgery. If cancer did not extend beyond the kidneys, surgery to remove the tumor may be the only treatment required. The three types of surgery includes:
- Radical nephrectomy: A radical nephrectomy is the removal of the kidney, its surrounding tissues and lymph nodes if they are also affected by the cancer. A radical nephrectomy is recommended if there is no healthy tissue remaining in which to save the kidney or if there is a large tumor that requires surgical removal. Sometimes the tumor develops right inside the renal vein and enters the vena cava on its way to the heart; in this case, complicated cardiovascular surgery techniques may be needed.
- Partial nephrectomy: It is a surgery to remove the tumor and conserve as much kidney function as possible. When a partial nephrectomy is performed, this preserves kidney function and reduces the risk of developing chronic kidney disease following surgery.
- Robotic and Laparoscopic surgery: Laparoscopic surgery is a type of minimally invasive surgery that enables a surgeon to carry out an operation through several small incisions. Laparoscopy offers benefits for people with kidney cancer, including less pain, less blood loss and quicker recovery times. A surgeon can use robotic tools to carry out the procedure, which may offer additional benefits.
Surgery may not be recommended due to tumor characteristics or the patient’s overall health. You should have a thorough conversation with your physician and discuss all the risks and benefits of these surgical options. It includes:
- Radiofrequency ablation: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a procedure used to treat cancer of the head, neck, and esophagus. The procedure involves the use of a needle that allows doctors to heat tissue in order to destroy cancer cells.
- Cryoablation: It is a non-surgical procedure used to destroy cancer cells using extreme cold temperatures. The metallic sensor is placed into the cancerous tissue. The probe uses extreme cold temperatures to freeze and destroy the cancerous cells.
Systemic therapy is a type of cancer treatment that involves the use of medication to kill cancer cells. This type of medication is administered orally or directly through the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. It is of different types such as:
- Targeted therapy: It works by blocking specific cancer genes, proteins, or the tissue environment that contributes to the growth and survival of cancer cells. This type of therapy inhibits the growth and spread of cancer cells and limits damage to healthy cells.
- Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy, also known as biologic therapy, helps in boosting the natural defences of the body to fight against cancer. The function of the immune system is improved and restored by using certain materials that can be made in the laboratory or by the body itself.
- Chemotherapy: This therapy for destroying cancer cells. Systemic chemotherapy is a procedure where the injection of these drugs is done into vein that then enters the bloodstream and travels in the entire body.
- Radiation Therapy: The external-beam radiation therapy is considered as the most common type of radiation treatment. In this treatment, the machine placed outside the body, and it uses a beam or a beam of radiation to destroy cancer cells. On the other hand, internal radiation therapy (Brachytherapy) provides a radiation treatment by using implants inside the body.
Cities And Hospitals Offering Best Treatment In India
The best city and hospital for Kidney cancer treatment will not just be chosen on the basis of cost but also factors like number of success cases, medically advanced hospitals, and good treatment facilities. Some of the listed hospitals provides best treatment for kidney cancer in India:
- Paras Hospital
- Medanta The Medicity
- Max Healthcare, Delhi
- Global Hospital Chennai
- Artemis Hospital Delhi
- Fortis Hospital, Noida
- Fortis Hospital, Mumbai
- Global Hospital Mumbai
- Jaslok Hospital, Mumbai
- Apollo Cancer Institute Delhi
- Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai
- Apollo Cancer Institute, Chennai
- Apollo Gleneagles Hospital, Kolkata
- Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi
- Manipal Hospital Bengaluru (Bangalore)
- Global Hospital Bengaluru (Bangalore)
- Narayana Multispecialty Hospital, Bengaluru
- Nanavati Super Specialty Hospital, Mumbai
- BLK-MAX Super Speciality Hospital, New Delhi
- Fortis Memorial Research Institute (Fmri) Gurgaon
- Pushpawati Singhania Research Institute, New Delhi
- Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital & Medical Research Institute Mumbai
Most kidney tumors and cancer are curable through surgery. We offer a variety of surgical approaches and techniques to remove the entire tumor, including robotic surgery and laparoscopy.
The size of a tumor is one of the strongest factors used to predict a person's prognosis (probability of survival). The smaller the tumor, the more likely it is that the cancer will be controlled and cured.
In most cases, recovery from kidney ablation takes between 3 and 6 weeks. During this time, you may have some pain in your stomach or on the side where you had the kidney removed. The pain should improve within several days to a week. That is why we recommend that you take a pain reliever such as ibuprofen regularly and continue until all pain is gone. If your pain does not improve after 4 to 5 days, call your doctor right away.
Laparoscopic nephrectomy is performed with small incisions and therefore, the surgical trauma to the tissues is less. This results in less pain and discomfort post-operatively along with a quicker return to normal activities. Most patients can leave the hospital sooner as the overall recovery takes less time.
It is important to consider quitting tobacco because it is such a strong risk factor for kidney cancers and may cause kidney cancer.
Most people who have one kidney can live a normal life without any major health problems. However, you should keep yourself healthy and be mindful about the activities that may cause harm to your other kidney.
The doctor will monitor the recovery of the person treated for kidney cancer and checks for its recurrence. The checkups will ensure that any changes in the health are noted. It is extremely important even when the cancer seems to have been removed completely or destroyed. Sometimes the disease returns since the cancer cells can remain in the body post treatment.
There are many different forms of cancer treatment that can have varying complications and side effects. Some common side effects include hair loss, mouth sores, and vomiting. Prior to care, the doctor will address the possibility of complications and describe methods for treating them. They can be avoided or regulated by some drugs.
Treatment depends on the stage of disease and the patient's general health and age. The doctor can describe treatment choices, discuss the expected results, and work with patients to develop a treatment plan that fits their needs.
Kidney cancer is not contagious and cannot spread from person to person. It develops from cells in the kidney but does not remain within the organ itself.