Transplantation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (Bone Marrow Transplant)

Bone marrow transplantation is a surgical treatment that replaces diseased or injured bone marrow with healthy blood-forming stem cells. A stem cell transplant is another name for the bone marrow treatment. Bone marrow is a soft, spongy tissue that can be found in your bones. It is in charge of creating stem blood cells, which then give rise to red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, among other blood cells.

If a person has any of the following health problems, he or she may need a bone marrow transplant:

  • Aplastic anaemia and other bone marrow disorders.
  • Leukemia and lymphoma are examples of blood malignancies.
  • Other immunological weaknesses and hereditary diseases, such as sickle cell disease, are also common.

A bone marrow transplant is a surgery in which blood stem cells are transplanted from the bone marrow to replace cells in the bone marrow that have been injured or killed. After the healthy blood stem cells have been transplanted, they travel to the bone marrow and begin to form new bone marrow cells, allowing cell creation to resume. It's possible that the stem cells will come from you or from a donor. The method of bone marrow transplantation is also known as bronchial cell transplantation.

Over the last several years, rapid advancements in medical technology have resulted in an increase in the success rate of bone marrow transplants in India, as well as an increase in the survival rates for a variety of blood malignancies.

Cost of bone marrow transplant:

S.No. Countries Average Cost (USD) Average Cost (INR)
1. India $15,000 – $90,000 ₹10,69,095 – ₹64,14,569
2. USA $350,000 – $800,000 ₹2,47,36,250 – ₹5,65,40,000
3. United Kingdom $233,310 – $583,275 ₹1,64,89,184- ₹4,12,22,960
4. Germany $100,000 – $250,000 ₹70,67,500 – ₹1,76,68,750

What is the need for a Bone Marrow Transplant?

Bone marrow is a vital aspect of the body because it helps your immune system work properly. If your bone marrow is sick, and you don't have enough white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets, your immune system will be compromised, and you'll be more susceptible to infections, diseases, and infections. This can be extremely harmful to your body and can lead to dangerous diseases. That is why a bone marrow transplant is done when the bone marrow isn't working properly, such as when you have a bone marrow illness, and the bone marrow malfunctions. The cause of bone marrow destruction or injury varies from person to person and diagnosing bone marrow disorder symptoms can be difficult at times.

If your bone marrow is unable to produce stem cells, your bone marrow transplant physician may recommend a bone marrow transplant. Bone marrow transplants can help those with cancer-related illnesses as well as those who have had their bone marrow damaged by chemotherapy or radiation. Your bone marrow may be saved after it has been destroyed with the help of a bone marrow transplant, as fresh stem cells may speed up the stem cell creation process.

Types of Bone Marrow Transplants:

There are several different types of bone marrow transplants. The cost of a transplant is determined on the type of surgery required. The following are the many types of BMT treatment approaches:

  • Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant: Autologous refers to a person's own "self”. An autologous transplant is one that employs stem cells from the patient's own body. High-dose, intense chemotherapy or radiation therapy are used to treat cancer. Your stem cells and immune system may be harmed as a result of this treatment. That's why doctors remove or save your stem cells from your blood or bone marrow before commencing cancer treatment. After chemotherapy, the stem cells are restored to your body, restoring your immune system as well as your body's ability to make blood cells and fight cancer. This treatment is also known as autologous bone marrow transplantation or stem cell rescue.
  • Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplant: The term "allogenic" means "different." Another individual, referred to as a donor, is used to harvest stem cells. In most circumstances, the donor's DNA must at least partially match yours. Special tests are used to assess if a donor is a good match for you. A brother or sister is most likely to be a good match. Parents, children, and other relatives might make a suitable match on occasion. Allogenic BMT is categorised into three kinds based on the donor's relationship and tissue compatibility. They are:
    • Completely Matched Sibling Donor BMT: In this case, the donor is most likely the patient's sibling or sister. These are frequently a perfect match for the tissue of the patient.
    • Haplo-identical BMT: This is a sort of Allogenic BMT in which the patient's parents are generally a donor because their children are half matches. When a complete match cannot be discovered and the patient has no siblings, the expert surgeon considers the patient's parents to be a donor and performs Haploidentical BMT.
    • Unrelated Donor BMT: When there is no sibling and the patient's parents aren't a match, Unrelated Donor BMT is the solution, in which a donor who isn't related to you is found through the Donor Match Registry and transplanted.
  • Transplantation of umbilical cord blood: This is an allogeneic transplant. Stem cells are removed from a new born baby's umbilical cord shortly after delivery. The stem cells are frozen and stored until they are needed for a transplant. Perfect matching isn't required because umbilical cord blood cells are so young. Due to the smaller quantity of stem cells in the blood, blood counts take substantially longer to restore.

Before the transplant:

you or your donor will be administered with medications that will help move blood-forming stem cells from your bone marrow to your bloodstream. The stem cells from your blood or the blood of your donor will be taken, isolated from the bloodstream, and frozen. You undergo a conditioning treatment that includes high or low dose chemotherapy or radiation to destroy cancer cells as well as your own stem cells so that fresh stem cells can replace them.

During the procedure:

You will be seated in a chair while the infusion is administered through a surgical line placed to your neck. Any changes in your temperature or blood pressure, as well as any signs of fever, will be watched. You may have headaches, nausea, and shortness of breath as a result of the medication.

After the transplant:

Your stem cells will begin grafting to the bone marrow two to four weeks after the transplant is completed. They'll next begin to produce white blood cells, platelets, and red blood cells. If the stem cells come from a donor, you'll need to take antibiotics and anti-rejection medication to help your body accept them. Transfused red blood cells, platelets, and nourishment may also be required. It's possible that you'll need to stay in the hospital for a month until your immune system recovers. It is critical to maintain a germ-free atmosphere. You'll need to go to the outpatient department to have your blood and bone marrow checked for any issues.

Risk Factors for Bone Marrow Transplant

The risk factors for Bone Marrow Transplant are determined by a variety of factors. It could be your age, overall health, or the ailment for which you're being treated, for example.

The type of transplant and how well the donor marrow matches the recipient marrow are also factors that influence the outcome. Another key factor is how a bone marrow transplant is carried out. The amount of radiation or chemotherapy you receive prior to your bone marrow transplant, as well as the dose you receive, affects the outcome of your transplant.

The likelihood of difficulties varies from one person to the next. Individuals getting a transplant may need to be hospitalised and treated for problems that emerge in rare circumstances, some of which may be life-threatening.

The following are minor issues that may occur as a result of a bone marrow transplant:

  • Taste impairment
  • A persistent headache
  • Chances of getting a high fever.
  • Nausea
  • Your blood pressure is dropping.
  • Hives
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Chills

Why choose India if you want to have a bone marrow transplant?

Bone Marrow Transplantation Benefits in India:

  • India is an excellent choice for a bone marrow transplant because of its affordability and reliability.
  • The greatest bone marrow transplant hospitals in India have a stunning 60-90 percent success rate.
  • A 30-day hospital stay is required, as well as a 90-day stay in the nation.

The doctors and surgeons in India is erudite and has years of experience treating life-threatening disorders, thanks to the ever-advancing area of medicine and research technology.

The infrastructure and technology of India's top hospitals are comparable to those found in their western counterparts.

One can be assured of quality treatment and holistic care at a third of the cost with the greatest surgeons in India. The cost of a bone marrow transplant has also been reduced by focusing on fresh tactics and modern technologies to provide excellent healthcare.

Support and care

Following a bone marrow transplant, doctors and nurses will closely monitor the patients' recovery. Patients may require the following:

  • Blood transfusions are used to increase the number of red blood cells in the body.
  • Drugs to reduce immunity and help avoid GVHD, as well as medications to help with any side effects that may occur.
  • Lab tests
  • Medicine to fight infections

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