Organ Transplant

What Is An Organ Transplant?

Organ Transplant

In simple words, Organ transplant is a procedure in which the organ is taken from one individual's body and redressed in another individual's body. Organ transplant is a method that is used to treat problems of the human body. These problems can be categorized as defective, damaged, or missing body organs. So, the procedure for organ transplant involves certain steps. In these steps, the organ is taken or removed from one person's body and then it is placed in the recipient or the patient's body to replace the damaged or missing organ with the healthy one that functions properly.

The organ transplantation needs to be done when the problems or the disease of the organs cannot be treated with any medical drugs or surgeries. There are a number of organs of the human body that can be transplanted, some of them are listed below:

  1. Lungs
  2. Kidneys
  3. Pancreas
  4. Intestine
  5. Heart and liver

Tissue transplantation is also possible and tissues that can be transplanted or donated are as follows:

  1. Skin
  2. Heart
  3. Valves
  4. Tendons
  5. Middle Ear
  6. Bone Marrow

The given above are certain organs as well as tissues that can be transplanted. The transplantation can be done at the same place or at different places as well. When the donor as well as the recipient are at the same location then it can be done at the same location. If they are not, then the organ can be transported from one location to the location where the recipient is. There are several key factors that play a very crucial role when considering transplantation. For instance, the organs or the tissues of the same individual that need to be transplanted within the body of the same person are known as autografts. Whereas an allograft can be described as the transplantable tissue which comes from a human donor and is implanted in a recipient. This tissue is typically processed and sterilized and then it can be used in grafting surgeries to repair or replace the damaged bones or ligaments.

There are body organs that can successfully be transplanted from one individual to the other. These organs are as follows:

  1. Heart
  2. Liver
  3. Lungs
  4. Thymus
  5. Kidneys
  6. Pancreas
  7. Intestine

There are some organs that cannot be transplanted from one person to another. For instance, the overall central nervous tissue that includes brain tissue, and spinal cord tissue. These tissues and organs cannot be transplanted from one individual's body to the other. Because these organs or tissue do not regrow when they get cut from the donor body. One of the most significant barriers that influences the inability of these organs to be transplanted is the healing of the nerve tissue. Apart from these there are also tissues that cannot be transplanted and these include:

  • Bones
  • Veins
  • Nerves
  • Skin tissue
  • Heart valves
  • Tendons

The medical domain of transplantation is one of the most sophisticated and complex areas of modern science. It requires the utmost level of experience as well as perfection otherwise, the medical experts can face issues like transplant rejection. Transplant rejection basically refers to the failure of the transplant organ in the recipient body. Thus, this will result in removal of the transplanted organ from the receiver's body. Hence it is always recommended to go through several consultations with the best doctors and medical experts before making any decision.

Factors And Criteria That Affect Organ Transplant

Organ transplants cannot be done without proper consultations from the medical experts. It requires proper analysis as well as thorough examination of both candidates. That includes the donor as well as the recipient. The process and screening of both the subjects are done on the basis of logistical and medical characteristics. These logistical and medical characteristics are thoroughly measured for an organ so as to distribute and to find the best possibilities and criteria for the receiving candidate (recipient). The matching criteria is based on these principles:

  • The relative distance between the receiver and the donor: Distance plays a very important role in organ transplantation. Every organ has some life expectancy and if they do not get delivered in that particular time range, the organ as well as the recipient both can get into critical or even life-threatening situations.
  • The size of the organ needed: The size of the organs varies from person to person. Therefore, you cannot transplant the organ that does not match both the donor's as well as the recipient's body. Hence, the donor's organ should meet the criteria for the recipient organ.
  • Blood type: Another important thing that is taken into consideration before doing the organ transplant is the blood group type. The blood group is also very important before proceeding for the transplant process hence, the donor's blood group should need to match the recipient's blood group.
  • The time spent awaiting the transplant: Time is very important during the process of organ transplant. Sometimes in situations where the patient or the receiver is in critical condition and an immediate organ transplant is required. During that period of time the availability of the desired organ is very necessary otherwise it can turn out to be a life-threatening condition for that person.

Apart from these principles there are certain factors that are concerned before the organ matching process. These factors can be classified as:

  • Identification of the recipient: The identification of the recipient is very important because it will distinguish and provide the proper recipient's requirement accordingly.
  • The body immunity similarity of both the donor as well as the recipient: The immunity of a person is very contrastive in nature. It differs from person to person hence it is very important to understand the degree of the immune system that needs to be matched between the recipient and the donor.
  • Medical urgency of the recipient: Another important thing is the medical urgency of the recipient. Sometimes in critical situations the recipient does not have much time so in order to understand the urgency, the right and precise measurement needs to be taken in that time frame.
  • The body immunity similarity of both the donor as well as the recipient: The immunity of a person is very contrastive in nature. It differs from person to person hence it is very important to understand the degree of the immune system that needs to be matched between the recipient and the donor.

Organ Matching Process:

Organ matching process involves certain parameters or steps and these are as follows:

  • The very first step is to donate an organ.
  • In the next step the UNOS (United Network for Organ Sharing) lists the potential recipient for the organ transplant.
  • The third step involves notifying the transplant center about an available organ.
  • The transplant team processes the organ for the recipient.
  • The final steps include the acceptance or declination of the organ.

Organ transplant requires authentication, and it has a waiting list. To be on the waiting list you need to register yourself on the national waiting list for the patient required to visit the transplant hospital. Then the physician will examine the patient carefully and thoroughly. After examination, the physician will determine the condition of the patient's health while considering his or her medical history as well. After this, the physician will decide if the patient is convincing enough to be listed or not.

What Is An Organ Distributing Policy?

After registering yourself on the national waiting list, the next thing will be the distribution of the organs. The distribution policy of organs is very simple. The first step of distribution of the organ is distributing organs in the local region. If there are no recipients in the local region then, the next distribution area tier changes to regional. If there is no recipient in the regional area then again, the area tier changes and at last it might become national. Hence now the availability of the organs is in terms of the whole nation. Thus, the idea is to provide the organ to the most appropriate recipient respectively.

What Are The Facts That Are Related To Organ Donation?

The facts that are related to organ donations are as follows:

  • Anyone that is above 18 years of age can donate his or her organ.
  • If the donor donates the organ after the death. Then a proper and detailed medical assessment needs to be done.
  • There are certain conditions that enable the exclusion of the organ donation is, if the donor is suffering from HIV or some serious infection, kidney disease, heart disease or any type of cancer.

Who Is An Organ Donor?

Organ donors can be anyone. Both living and dead can be organ donors. If the person is having any injury either pathological or traumatic and specifically the part of the brain that controls the respiration that breathing and heartbeat, then the person is termed as brain dead. A brain-dead person is suitable for organ donation.

There are two types of donors:

  • Living donor: A living donor is the one that can be part of the family. It can be a family member (parents, brother or sister). A living donor can donate renewable cells, fluids and tissues to the recipient. Apart from this a living donor can also donate a part of their small bowel of liver or they can donate a single kidney.
  • Deceased donor (cadaveric): Deceased donors are those donors who are declared as brain dead and their organs are kept under ventilators so they are in workable conditions and hence they can be used in the time for the transplantation.

Why Is India An Ideal Option For Organ Transplant Surgery?

After going through the organ transplantation, the very next thing that strikes your mind will be the cost as well as the best hospital for the transplantation.

Organ Transplant Surgery

India is considered to be the best option in terms of organ transplantation. It provides transplant surgery at a very affordable cost as compared to other countries. It has been accredited for giving the best transplant surgery for liver, kidney, heart and lungs. Due to the advancement in technology the hospital and its infrastructure are very well equipped with modern medical technologies. There are many prestigious surgeons in India who perform numerous transplantation surgeries. Moreover, the high success rate of around 90% in terms of recipients and 100% in terms of donors displays their competence. The cost of organ transplant surgeries in India is very low. And this plays a very vital role for anybody.

There are many hospitals that provide organ transplants but some of them are very known and the best. The best hospital for organ transplant is given below:

  • Max Hospital Delhi
  • Fortis Hospital Delhi
  • Apollo Hospital, Delhi
  • Medanta Hospital, Gurgaon
  • Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon
  • Narayana Health, Bangalore
  • Manipal Hospital, Bangalore
  • Wockhardt Hospital, Bangalore
  • Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Delhi
  • Blk Super Specialty Hospital, Delhi

These are some of the very well-known hospitals that provide the facility of organ transplantation.

The Cost Of Organ Transplant Surgery In India

India is termed and recognized as the base that provides the high-quality healthcare services. These high-quality services come at a low cost if we compare them to other very well-known countries. For instance, if we talk about the cost of organ transplant, it is far less than the many developed nations. In India, the organ transplant cost depends upon different criteria. These criteria are surgeon, city and hospital services. The average cost of different organ transplants is given below:

Name Of the Organ Transplant Average Cost In USD Average Cost In Indian Rupees
Kidney transplant cost USD 13,000 - 18,000 INR 9,10,000 - 12,60,000
Eye transplant cost USD 1500- 1800 INR 1,05,000 - 1,26,000
Liver transplant cost USD 32,000 - 40,000 INR 22,40,000 - 28,00,000
Lung transplant cost USD 50,000 - 60,000 INR 35,00,000 - 42,00,000
Heart transplant cost USD 40,000 - 50,000 INR 28,00,000 - 35,00,000
Stem cell transplant cost USD 6,000 - 8,000 INR 4,20,000 - 5,60,000
Bone marrow transplant cost USD 25,000 - 35,000 INR 17,50,000 - 24,50,000

Note: The costs mentioned above are just an estimation and are subject to change.

FAQs

Organ transplant is a process in which an organ from the donor's body is provided to the recipient's body. It happens only because of damaged or missing organs.

Heart, Liver, Kidneys, Lungs, Intestine, Thymus and Pancreas are the organs that can get successfully transplanted.

Organ donor is someone who gives the organ to the patient or to the required subject.

Organ distributing policy refers to the manner and hierarchical order in which the organ is given to the recipient.

The cost of organ transplant in India is comparatively lower than the other countries.

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