A cancer that starts in the immune system cells (lymphocytes) is known as lymphoma cancer. The reason for lymphoma cancer is the uncontrollable growth of cells and their multiplication.
Lymphoma cancer can be categorized into two types –
Both Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma have many types. Lymphoma can be categorized in total 30 different types in which some types are common while some are rare.
Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, also known as Hodgkin’s disease, is one of the two common forms of lymphatic system cancers. In Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, the cells present in the lymphatic system may grow unusually spreading beyond the lymphatic system. A body may also lose its ability to fight against different infections due to the progression of Hodgkin’s disease. There are no known causes of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. A slight risk of genetic predisposition and exposure to viral infections can be regarded as the causes of Hodgkin lymphoma.
Swelling in the groin, neck or armpit is considered as the most common symptom of Hodgkin lymphoma. Some of the other symptoms include –
Some people are diagnosed with abnormal cells in their marrow that can result in lower number of healthy blood cells in the blood. Some of the symptoms due to lower number of healthy blood cells include –
Hodgkin lymphoma can be categorized into different types that include –
Nodular Lymphocyte - Predominant Type:
This type is considered as rare and approximately 5% of all Hodgkin lymphomas diagnosed are of nodular lymphocyte-predominant type.
The four common types of Hodgkin lymphoma include
When tumors invade other body organs then it may result in some late symptoms that include –
Stage 1 :
Here in this initial stage, the lymphoma affects only 1 group of lymph nodes.
Stage 2 :
In the second stage, two or more groups of lymph nodes are affected that are on the similar side of the diaphragm.
Stage 3 :
In the third stage, lymph nodes are affected on below and above the diaphragm.
Stage 4 :
In the last stage, the spread of the lymphoma to the organs that are outside the lymph nodes include lungs, liver or bones.
Swollen lymph nodes is one of the symptoms of Hodgkin lymphoma that is associated with the diagnosis of lymphoma. A biopsy is also carried out that helps in revealing the presence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Some of other tests that help in checking the spread of lymphoma include –
The specific treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma largely depends on the stage, overall health and type of disease. The aim is to kill all the present cancer cells. Some of the treatment options include –
Stem Cell Transplant :
In this treatment, a diseased bone marrow is replaced with healthy stem cells in order to grow new bone marrow. This treatment can be the only option if Hodgkin lymphoma occurs again despite being treated. The removal of a patient’s blood stem cells is done that are then stored and frozen for later use. A patient then receives high-dose of radiation and chemotherapy for destroying cancerous cells in the body. The stem cells are then softened and injected into the body by the means of veins and they then helps in building new healthy bone marrow.
This therapy makes use of chemicals for destroying lymphoma cells. These drugs travel to the bloodstream and finally reach to all parts of the body. Radiation therapy is often combined with chemotherapy for treating those people who are suffering from early-stage classical type of Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Radiation Therapy :
High-energy beams that include x-rays are used in this therapy for destroying cancer cells. Radiation therapy is usually used after the chemotherapy for treating classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Radiation therapy is used alone for treating those people who are suffering from early stage lymphocyte-predominant of Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, also referred to as NHL or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, is a type of cancer that begins in lymphocytes (a part of the immune system of the body). NHL can be categorized into 40 different types. There are no known causes of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. People who have weak immune systems that also include those people, who are suffering from HIV infection or had an organ transplant, can develop Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
T-cell or B-cell lymphomas are categorized under lymphomas that depends on whether these lymphomas have began from T-cell lymphocytes or B-cell lymphocytes. B-cell lymphomas are considered as the most common that include –
Some of the not so common types are –
T-cell lymphoma types include –
Stage 1 :
In the initial stage, the lymphoma affects only 1 group of lymph nodes.
Stage 2 :
The lymphoma in the second stage is present in 2 or more groups of lymph nodes on the same side of the diaphragm.
Stage 3 :
The lymphoma in the third stage is there on both sides of the diaphragm.
Stage 4 :
The lymphoma in the last change has spread beyond the lymph nodes to organs like lungs, bone marrow or liver.
A tissue biopsy is done for diagnosing Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. When there is painless and enlarged lymph node that does not have any infection then a biopsy is required. Other tests include –
The treatment of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma depends on its stage, symptoms and the type. The aim of the treatment is to eliminate the lymphoma without causing any damage to the surrounding cells. The common treatment options for Non-Hodgkin lymphoma include –
This treatment is used for destroying lymphoma cells. Monoclonal antibodies can also be combined with chemotherapy drugs for delivering high concentration of the drugs to the tumor cells.
Anti-cancer drugs are used for destroying lymphoma cells that are injected through the vein or can also be taken by mouth. This treatment has proved very beneficial for lymphoma as anti-cancer drugs enter into the bloodstream that also reaches to every part of the body.
This treatment uses a monoclonal antibody that also combines a radioactive particle to it. This helps in destroying the lymphoma cells and simultaneously it also destroys many more cells that are in the radiation path.
High dose x-rays are used for treating cancer cells that are still there after surgery. This therapy is usually used for treating Non-Hodgkin lymphoma cancer. External radiation is a method by which radiation is given directly to the cancer from a machine that is outside of the body.