Testicular Cancer

What is testicular cancer?

Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that is found in male. It develops in testes or testicles which are the male reproductive organ, and they produce male hormones that are sperm and testosterone. Testicular cancer affects the testicles, they are responsible for the synthesis of the testosterone and sperm in men. Testicular cancer is the most common type of cancer that can be found in men and the age criteria that get affected most is from 15 to 35 years of age. Fortunately, testicular cancer is a curable cancer. The data shows that as much as 95% of men that are diagnosed with testicular cancer, they get the cure and are left as cancer-free individuals after the successful treatment for the testicular cancer.

Testicular Cancer Testicular Cancer

Types of Testicular Cancer?

There are different types of cancer, one of them is testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that forms when malignant (cancer) cells develop in the tissues of one or both testicles. The testicles are like two walnut-shaped male sex glands these glands produce sperm and the hormone that is testosterone. These two glands are situated in the scrotum. The scrotum is like a skin sac, and it lies below the penis.

Unlike any other cancer, testicular cancer is highly treatable and curable.

There are different types of testicular cancer, and it has been divided into three categories:

  • Germ Cell Tumors
  • Non- Germ cell tumors
  • Extragonadal tumors

Out of the given three types, the most common type of testicular cancer is germ cell tumor. The germ cell tumor is the most common type of testicular cancer, and it can be found very easily in males. Germ cell tumors are further categorized into two categories:

Seminoma: Seminoma is a type of germ cell tumor cancer. It can be found in the mediastinum or other extra-gonadal locations. It is a malignant neoplasm and is one of the most treatable and curable cancers. In other words, we can say that Seminomas are the type of cancer that spread slowly in the testicle and lymph nodes but does not spread to other areas as well. It primarily affects people who are in their 40s or 50s.

Non-seminoma: Nonseminomas is a type of cancer that is common, this type of cancer spreads fast to the other parts and organs of the body. Nonseminoma cancer affects mostly the late teens, 20s, and early 30s the prognosis of non-seminoma germ cell tumors is variable and depends on the biological behavior of individual tumors.

What are the symptoms of testicular cancer?

The symptoms of having testicular cancer are very less in the beginning or not in some cases but in the later stages of testicular cancer you can find some of the symptoms. The most common signs and symptoms of testicular symptoms are as follows:

  • Swelling or sudden fluid builds up in the scrotum.
  • Having a feeling of lump or swelling in their testicles.
  • Having the feeling of heaviness in your scrotum.
  • The presence of a dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin.
  • If you have pain or discomfort in your scrotum or testicles.
  • If a person is experiencing shrinking testicles (testicular atrophy).

The above-given symptoms can also occur with other medical problems or conditions. Therefore, it is advisable to not panic about it, moreover, try to have a proper diagnosis and do not delay in diagnosis because delays in diagnosis can give time for cancer-causing cells to spread in other areas as well as in organs too.

What are the signs of testicular cancer?

As we all know, when the abnormal division of the cell takes place, it becomes cancer. Therefore, testicular cancer develops when the cells multiply abnormally. The multiplication of a cell happens at such a very rapid rate that it creates a type of lump or tumor. Many researchers are not sure about the main cause behind testicular cancer. One thing that they know is that the cells that influence or cause testicular cancer are the germ cells. To attain a perfect diagnosis and treatment regarding testicular cancer is to be aware of the signs and symptoms highlighted by it. These signs and symptoms of testicular cancer can be identified by different means and the most common of all is by having an ultrasound. One can go for the diagnosis of testicular cancer if he is seeing signs such as:

Swelling of testicles, presence of fluid in the scrotum, heaviness in the scrotum, presence of a painless lump in the testicles, pain in the testicles, pain in the scrotum, etc.

What are the different stages of testicular cancer?

There are different stages of testicular cancer, and they are listed below:

Diagnosis of testicular cancer

Different types of diagnostic tests can be used to diagnose testicular cancer. These tests are as follows:

What are the treatments for testicular cancer?

The treatment for testicular cancer depends upon a variety of factors and these factors can be your health, treatment preferences, cancer stage, and type of tumor. Understanding the need for treatment is very important. For instance, the seminomas tend to grow more slowly and respond better to radiation therapy as compared to Nonseminomas. And both testicular cancer responds well to chemotherapy treatments.

There are different types of treatment available for different cases, such as:

Surgery: It is used to remove cancerous testicles. It is further divided into subcategories:

  • Radical inguinal orchiectomy: Orchiectomy (removal of the testicle) to treat both seminoma and non-seminoma testicular cancer. The procedure involves the removal of the tumor.
  • Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND): It is more common with Nonseminoma testicular cancer. The procedure involves the removal of the lymph nodes through the abdomen.

Radiation therapy: Uses high doses of X-rays to kill cancer-causing cells. Radiation might be used after to prevent the tumor from returning.

Chemotherapy: Using certain drugs such as cisplatin, bleomycin, and etoposide to kill cancer-causing cells. Because of the chemotherapy, the survival rate of the individual improved.

Prevention of testicular cancer

Testicular cancer cannot be preventable, it is curable, but it is not preventable. Moreover, you can perform self-examination (testicular self-exams) that is {TSE}. This helps you to identify the changes and whether these changes require your attention or not.

Testicular Cancer Treatment Cost In India

The cost of testicular cancer treatment in India varies from USD 5127 to 38453 (INR 400000 to 3000000). In addition, some factors affect the cost of treatment, and these factors are:

  • Location
  • Cancer stage
  • Type of hospital
  • Cost of investigation
  • Doctor's experience
  • Length of hospital stay
  • Follow-up visits


Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that happens when malignant (cancer) cells develop in the tissues of one or both testicles.

Yes, testicular cancer is curable if it is diagnosed in the early stages.

There is no definite cause behind testicular cancer but there are certain points that can be included:

  • The age group of 15 to 35.
  • Abnormal testicle development.
  • Family history of testicular cancer.
  • An undescended testicle, cryptorchidism.

The symptoms of testicular cancer include:

  • Back pain.
  • Pain in testicle.
  • Fluid accumulation.
  • Dull pain in the abdomen.
  • Formation of a lump in the testicle.
  • Feeling of heaviness in the scrotum.

Seminomas are the type of cancer that spread slowly in the testicle and lymph nodes but do not spread to other areas as well.

Testicular cancer can be fatal in some rare cases. Still early detection makes a big difference.

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